The Titans, also known as the elder
gods, ruled the earth before the Olympians overthrew
them. The ruler of the Titans was Cronus who was killed
by his son Zeus in an epic battle that lasted ten years.
Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against Zeus and
were punished by being banished to Tartarus. During their
rule the Titans were associated with the various planets.
the sky god and first ruler. He is the son of Gaea, who
created him without help. He then became the husband of
Gaea and together they had many offspring, including
twelve of the Titans. His rule ended when when Cronus,
encouraged by Gaea, castrated him. He either died from
the wound or withdrew from earth.
(Ouranos) is the personification of the sky and the son
and mate of Gaea. Their children are the Hecatonchires
(Centimani), the Cyclopes and the Titans. Uranus was
jealous of the future power of his children and feared he
would lose his rulership to them. He threw his children
in the underworld to prevent this. At the instigation of
Gaia, her son Cronus castrated his father and dethroned
him. When Uranus' blood fell upon the Earth (Gaea), the
Erinyes (the goddesses of vengeance) and the Gigantes
(giants) sprang forth, among many other divinities.
was the ruling Titan who came to power by castrating his
Father Uranus. His wife was Rhea. Their offspring were
the first of the Olympians. To insure his safety Cronus
ate each of the children as they were born. This worked
until Rhea, unhappy at the loss of her children, tricked
Cronus into swallowing a rock, instead of Zeus. When he
grew up Zeus would revolt against Cronus and the other
Titans, defeat them, and banish them to Tartarus in the
underworld, killing his father with a thunderbolt. Yet,
some say that Cronus managed to escape to Italy, where he
ruled as Saturn. The period of his rule was said to be a
golden age on earth, honored by the Saturnalia feast.
CRONUS AND RHEA
was the wife of Cronus. Cronus made it a practice to
swallow their children. To avoid this, Rhea tricked
Cronus into swallowing a rock, saving her son Zeus, who
grew up and deposed his father.
mythology, Rhea is the mother of the gods, daughter of
Uranus and Gaea. She is married to her brother Cronus and
is the mother of Demeter, Hades, Hera, Hestia, Poseidon
jealous of the future power of his children and to secure
his dominion, ate his own children but Rhea managed to
rescue one son, Zeus. She hid him in the Dictean Cave in
Crete and gave Cronus a stone wrapped in the clothes of
the infant, which he swallowed. Thus Rhea succeeded in
making him believe that he had killed all of his
children. When Zeus reached maturity he overpowered and
dethroned his father and made Cronus disgorge his
identified with mother goddess Cybele from Asia Minor and
is also known as Rhea Cybele and Magna Mater ("great
mother"). She was worshipped with orgiastic rites.
Rhea is depicted between two lions or on a chariot pulled
is the unending stream of water encircling the world.
Together with his wife Tethys they produced the rivers
and the three thousand ocean nymphs.He is the
personification of the vast ocean. As geography became
more precise, Oceanus began to refer to the water outside
of the Pillars of Heracles, or the Atlantic Ocean. He was
the eldest of the Titans and a son of Uranus and Gaia. He
was the father of all rivers by his sister Tethys. The
couple also had the Oceanids which personified springs
and smaller bodies of waters, like lakes and ponds.
is the wife of Oceanus. Together they produced the rivers
and the three thousand ocean nymphs. She was the
personification of the fertile ocean. She married her
brother Oceanus and had over 3000 children by him: They
were the springs, lakes and rivers of the world. Tethys
was the god-mother of Rhea and raised her during the
civil war between the Titans and the Olympians.
is the Titan of light, an early sun god. He is the son of
Gaea and Uranus. He married his sister Theia. Their
children were Helios (the sun), Selene (the moon), and
Eos (the dawn). The name Hyperion means "he who
goes before the sun" and may have arisen
because he was sometimes thought of as the sun.
was the son of Iapetus. Unlike his brothers Prometheus
and Epimetheus, Atlas fought with the other Titans
supporting Cronus against Zeus. Due to Cronus's advance
age Atlas lead the Titan's in battle. As a result he was
singled out by Zeus for a special punishment and made to
hold up the world on his back.
SUPPORTING THE EARTH
is the personification of memory and its goddess. She is
a daughter of Gaea and Uranus and the mother of the nine
Muses by Zeus, her nephew.
was the Titan of justice and order. Themis is one of the
daughters of Uranus and Gaea. She is the personification
of divine right order of things as sanctioned by custom
and law. She has oracular powers and it is said that she
build the oracle at Delphi. By Zeus she is the mother of
the Horae and the Moirae.
depicted as a stern looking woman, blindfolded and
holding a pair of scales and a cornucopia. The Romans
called her Justitia. Her name means "Law".
Titaness Themis introduced the ordinances which concern
the gods and instructed men in the ways of obedience to
laws and peace. Themis delivered oracles at Delphi until
Apollo, the lovely son of Leto, came to the city, killed
the serpent Python, which guarded the oracle and, sitting
in the tripod, took over it. However Leto did not give
Apollo her breast when he was born; but Themis, who was
there, poured Nectar and Ambrosia with her own hands for
him to taste.
told the Titan Prometheus (who called her
"mother", but so he called Gaia too, as some
will have it that Gaia and Themis were one and the same)
not to join the TITANS in their war against the
OLYMPIANS, because as she prophesied, in that war, the
clever, not the brute, would prevail. When Prometheus was
punished by Zeus and bound to the Caucasian rock, Themis
prophesied that a descendant of a Danaid (Heracles,
Hercules), none of them yet born, would deliver him.
deemed guardian of men's oaths and for that reason also
called goddess of oaths. She lives in Olympus close to
Zeus, who is described as the real all-seeing as he
whispers words of wisdom to Themis when she sits leaning
towards him. But some say that Zeus, thanks to Themis
rules in the sky
is the son Uranus and Gaia. Iapetus' wife is Clymene,
with whom he had four children - Atlas, Menoetius,
Prometheus and Epimetheus. He is occasionally called the
husband of Asia or Asopis.
the Titans, Coeus was the father of Leto, husband of
Phoebe and the grandfather of Apollo, Artemis and
Asteria. His name means "Intelligent".
and his siblings were the children of Uranus (Sky) and
Gaea (Earth). He had five brothers; Coeus, Cronus,
Hyperion, Lapetus, Oceanus; and six sisters; Mnemosyne,
Phoebe, Rhea, Tethys, Theia, and Themis.
bright and clear Titanian goddess, who shines down with
soft light and bathes her lovely body in the waters of
the Ocean, is the Moon. Her parents were Hyperion and
fell in love with the very handsome Endymion, who was
allowed to choose what he would, and he chose to sleep
for ever, remaining deathless and ageless. However some
say that he chose to be always sleepless. Endymion's
beauty was comparable only to that of Adonis, Ganymedes,
Narcissus, Hermaphroditus, Hylas and Chrysippus.
Helios (Sun) and his sister Selene (Moon) influence the
temperature of the air, both pestilential diseases and
deaths have been imputed to them. And then they have been
associated with Apollo and Artemis, because these are
healers, and standing for what is sound and safe, may
prevent those diseases and deaths.
that it was Selene who nourished the Nemean lion which
Heracles killed. Her offsping included fifty daughters
and the handsome Narcissus.
is the Titan of the Moon. She is the daughter of Uranus
and Gaia. She married her brother Coeus and with him she
became the mother of Leto and Asteria. It is said that
she owned the oracle of Delphi before Apollo took it
is a minor Greek goddess, one of the Titans. Her husband
and brother is Hyperion with whom she had three children
- Helios (the sun), Eos (the dawn) and Selene (the moon).
was the wisest Titan. His name means
"forethought" and he was able to foretell the
future. He was the son of Iapetus. When Zeus revolted
against Cronus Prometheus deserted the other Titans and
fought on Zeus side. By some accounts he and his brother
Epimetheus were delegated by Zeus to create animals and
man. Since his brother had foolishly given most of the
finer qualities to the animals, Prometheus had man walk
upright to give him an advantage over the beasts.
accounts, Prometheus is known as the protector and
benefactor of man. He gave mankind a number of gifts
including fire. He also tricked Zeus into allowing man to
keep the best part of the animals sacrificed to the gods
and to give the gods the worst parts. For this Zeus
punished Prometheus by having him chained to a rock with
an eagle tearing at his liver. He was to be left there
for all eternity or until he agreed to disclose to Zeus
which of Zeus children would try to replace him. He was
eventually rescued by Heracles without giving in to Zeus.
PROMETHEUS DOES LUNCH
was a foolish Titan, whose name means
"afterthought". He was the son of Iapetus. In
some accounts he is delegated, along with his brother
Prometheus by Zeus to create animals and mankind. He gave
all the finer qualities to the animals, leaving little of
use for humans. He also accepted the gift of Pandora from
Zeus, which lead to the introduction of evil into the
presided over all wisdom and knowledge. She is a daughter
of Oceanus and Tethys. Metis is regarded as the first
wife of Zeus, whom he swallowed when he discovered that
she was pregnant, fearing she might give birth to a son
mightier than he. Subsequently, the goddess Athena sprang
fully armed from his head. It was also Metis who
delivered the remedy that made Cronus disgorge the
children he had swallowed. Her name means
to certain traditions, the goddess or Titaness Dione
became by Zeus the mother of Aphrodite. Actually, her
name is a feminine form of Zeus (dios). It means